There are similar projects to Autoarchitect. They usually approach the problem from slightly different perspectives. For this post, I will be talking about some of them, in addition to some related research.
Towards a Scientific Architecture - Yona Friedman
In his book, Friedman mentions a proposal for what he calls an "apartment writer". He cites the Tyranny of the Architect, the tendency of architects to advance their own ego over their client's needs, as a major problem, and proposes a new task for Architects and Planners. Mainly this: design should be treated like a restaurant menu, where there is a repertoire of architectural elements the client can pick and choose from. Every item has a warning that is either the food combination or the price. The role of the Architect becomes like the Chef in that analogy: to organize and curate the repertoire. Here it is in Yona Friedman's own words:
Other authors have echoed Friedman's sentiment, like Nicholas Negroponte in Soft Architecture Machines (a part of which Friedman introduced). Negroponte frames it under the title User Participation in Design. He separates the field of user participation into 3 categories: more info, more advocacy, and the part least protective of "professionalism", citing Friedman: control. The two categories are not really considered participation. He likens the traditional architect-client relationship as Paternalistic, as follows:
An adaptive approach to residential design - Bruno Postle
A Pattern Language, published in the late 70's by Christopher Alexander, tried to envision a brave new world for Architecture. It defined a series of "patterns", or rule sets, that encapsulate what is according to him good design principles. It encapsulates Architecture, and by extension any design process, into a series of individually and scientifically testable rules, which can be taught and expanded on and adapted. While the book was more or less a dud in mainstream architectural circles, it became a huge influence on the field of software design. Coders and designers came to define their own design patterns and use them as a guide for good and efficient software design. One programmer, Bruno Postle, figured he should take the idea back to Architecture through an algorithm called Urb.
Postle used genetic algorithms to produce plans and designs for residential houses, using Alexander's patterns as fit criteria. In other words, the algorithm generates thousands of house designs then basically picks the one that satisfies Alexander's patterns the most. Every individual pattern was assigned a score, and each generation was scored by all the patterns, and all the scores were multiplied. The higher the product, the better the house is in theory. The algorithm, when applied to generate cities, seems successful as replicated traditional house designs. The project is written in Perl (for some reason) and is open sourced. It can be found in its homepage.
Housing Agency System (HAS) - Architecture Research Lab
This is an attempt to solve the problem that most houses designed are designed without paying attention to the eventual resident. The only party with input into the design is the developer, whose best interest lies in having the exact same design for all the houses they build. HAS tries to find a compromise between developers' needs and clients' needs, by creating a a mass-customizable house design that can be customized by the buyer using very simple criteria, such as the shape of the site, the existence of a car, and so on. This affects items like how long the rooms are, the angle of certain joints, the number of floors, all within a ready design structural system that can apply to all these solutions. More details about the process can be found in their website.
Other relevant research
- Dezeen - ShedKM and Urban Splash let residents design layouts for modular Manchester homes.
- The Architectural Review - Flat-pack Wright.
- ArchDaily - Tham & Videgård Designs Sweden’s "Most Sought After Home".
- NCCR Digital Fabrication - The "In situ Fabricator" (IF) is a autonomous construction robot, that shall enable digital fabrication directly on the construction site.
To end this post, I would like you to ponder this quote, while thinking about the status of typesetting in today's world:
The images from the article came from the books and websites mentioned just before.